le plan Demaree

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le plan Demaree

Messagepar docbb » Dim 06 10, 2019 - 3:06 pm

le plan original publié dans l'american Bee journal 1892 sur le compte rendu d'une conférence en 1891

Demaree a écrit:How to Prevent  Swarming


   When discussing this subject the temptation to argue the question, rather than to rely on a simple description of the manipulation resorted to, to accomplish the object in view, is very great. So many apiarists have imbibed the idea that some sort of contraction of the brood-nest is essential to the production of comb-honey, if not the extracted article, that any new discovery that runs counter to this idea of contraction meets a deaf ear, If not open opposition.
   Let me say, once for all, that when a new discovery is applied to an old system, it often becomes necessary to revise the old system to accommodate it to the newly-applied discovery. These remarks apply not exclusively to the old system of bee-culture, but to all systems pertaining to all industries. Those persons who are determined to stick to the old paths of tlfe past, are not in position to profit by any new discovery ; and this essay is not written for that class of readers.
   When your apiary is as large as you want it, what would you give to be able, by a simple, practical manipulation at the beginning of the swarming season, to hold all your colonies in full strength of working and breeding force steadily through the entire honey harvest ? You can do it beyond a doubt, by practicing my new system of preventing swarming ; and If you have the ingenuity to apply proper management to suit the new condition, your surplus yield will be larger than by any other method heretofore made known to the public.
   I have practiced the new system largely for the past two seasons, and my surplus yield was never so large, though it is well known that the past two sea- sons were not above the average as honey-yielding seasons.
   As I have already intimated, my plan of preventing swarming, and entirely preventing increase, is accomplished by one single manipulation right at the commencement of swarming. Only one hive and its outfit is used for each colony. Any system that requires a divided condition of the colony, using two or more hives, is not worthy of a thought.
   In my practice, I begin with the strongest colonies and transfer the combs containing brood from the brood- chamber to an upper story above the queen-excluder. One comb containing some unsealed brood and eggs is left in the brood-chamber as a start for the queen. I fill out the brood-chamber with empty combs, as I have a full outfit for my apiary. But full frames of foundation, or even starters, may be used in the absence of drawn combs.
   When the manipulation is completed, the colony has all of its brood with the queen, only its condition is altered. The queen has a new brood-nest below the excluder, while the combs of brood are in the center of the super, with the sides filled out with empty combs above the queen-excluder.
   In 21 days all the brood will be hatched out above the excluder, and the bees will begin to hatch in the queen's chamber below the excluder ; so a continuous succession of young bees is well sustained.

   If my object is to take the honey with the extractor, I tier up with a surplus of extracting combs as fast as the large colony needed the room to store surplus. Usually, the combs above the excluder will be filled with honey by the time all the bees are hatched out, and no system is as sure to give one set of combs full of honey for the extractor in the very poorest seasons ; and if the season is propitious, the yield will be enormous under proper management.
   The great economy of this system is, all the colonies will produce as nearly alike as can well be a condition of things that never occurs in any apiary swayed by the swarming impulse. If my object is fancy comb-honey, I tier the section-cases on the super that contains the brood, and push the bees to start all the combs they can ; at the close of the season I extract the honey from the combs in the super, and feed it back to properly prepared colonies to have the partly-filled sections completed. The nicest honey in sections that I ever produced was obtained in this way.
   To feed back successfully, requires as much experience as any other work connected with the art of producing honey, but the theme is too broad for a place in this connection.
   The system above described works perfectly if applied immediately after a swarm issues. The only difference in the manipulation in this case is, that no brood or eggs is left in the brood-nest, where the swarm is hived back. — Read at the Ohio State Convention. Christiansburg, Ky.

Le plan Demaree a été publié ensuite en Angleterre en 1916 (British Bee Journal) avec sa variante qui consiste à interposer une hausse vide ente la reine isolée sous sa grille avec un ou 2 cadre de couvain non opérculé les oeuf et les nourices, et le reste du couvain en haut.

The Demaree plan slightly varied has been tried in Ontario under the guidance of the Ontaria Agricultural and Experimental Union (Mr.Morley' Pettit, Bee-keeping Director), and has been found to answer well and to increase the honey crop. The variation consists in giving an additional storey of empty combs between the bottom storey and the brood, making three in all. Bythis means the old combs in the top storey,which may contain dark honey from the previous year, can be taken away before the bees begin to store the white honey
crop of the current season in them.

on commence a en parler en France apres la grande guerre, les premières traces en 1922 peut etre en 1918 mais les numéros ne sont pas disponibles.
On en trouve une description (critique)avec la conduite de la ruche Standart en 1927 dans "Basse cour et Rucher"
Puis il fut popularisé après le congrès de Bruxelles de 1935 ou de multiples orateurs en ont fait la démonstration et la critique essentiellement dans la variante Ontarienne.

L'apiculteur 1935 P.290 Le 10e Congrès International d'Apiculture (Bruxelles 3, 4, 5 et 6 août 1935)
par GEORGE F. JAUBERT, docteur ès-sciences
(Suite; voir numéro de septembre, page 257)
Le dimanche matin, séance de travail, présidée par un représentant de la YougoSlavie, le professeur Dimitrovitch,
On y entend un travail intéressant de M. le professeur Vandegaer, sur les résultats donnés par le plan Demaree et particulièrement obtenus dans ceux la propriété de M. Van Loo, à Bruxelles.
Comme on le sait, le plan Demaree est un procédé ...

Voici comment on s'y prend dans le cas le plus simple :
On met à côté de la ruche n"i (si c'est possible et de préférence une divisible), sur laquelle on veut opérer, un corps de ruche identique et vide pouvant se poser sur un plateau quelconque et dénommé ruche n° 2. On transvase alors dans la ruche n° 2 tous les cadres de la ruche n° 1, à l'exception d'un seul, celui sur lequel se trouve la reine. Tout le corps de ruche n° 1 est complété par des cadres vides; mais de préférence construits. Par dessus cette ruche n° 1, on met une grille à mère et par dessus
on place la ruche n° 2, à laquelle on ajoute le cadre qui lui manque, sous la 'forme d'un cadre de cire gaufrée.
On recouvre le corps de ruche n° 2 soit par une hausse vide, soit par des planchettes, puis une couverture chaude et le toit.

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